Switchable Glass

While this technology is a little further out from traditional display technology, switchable glass feels appropirate to cover in some form here. There are some artworks below that do use switchglass as more of an abstracted display rather than just one large panel. Additionally, it can be combined with traditional display technologies to create something a little more unique.
When it comes to switchable glass, there are several different technologies.


PDLC is Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal. When an electrical current is applied, it basically goes from clear to diffuse and opaque. The reaction and change occurs very quickly and can be used to create unusual effects. It also uses a low amount of energy compared to traditional displays. When electrical current is not applied, the film is opaque, but when it is applied it becomes transparent. This effect is also "dimmable" in the sense that varying levels of current can ramp the opacity up or down.
Artist Simon Heijdens has one of the better known examples of using PDLC in in their project Shade that uses hundreds of triangles and nearly invislble electrical leads to create different visual effects with sunlight.
Simon Heijden's Shade
While there are a number of resources for PDLC Smart Glass in normal installations and configurations, they are mostly concerned with static applications on windows/conference rooms/etc. For specialized applications, like fragmented elements or larger architectural elements, you may need to collaborate with a company like Gauzy.


SPD stands for Suspended Particle Device.
SPD is similar to PDLC in mechanism, but more of an opacity/tint change than diffusion. It primarily stays in one color that is sort of a purple blue, so it has limited uses. It can transition fairly quickly but not as fast as PDLC or LCD.
Image from Gauzy
Gauzy's SPD reference
SPD is a specialized product, but you can find it from vendors such as Gauzy.

Electrochromic Glass

This also operates under similar principles as the others. It is primarily a change in tint, as in SPD, but not in diffusion/opacity, as in PDLC. The clarity through the glass is largely untouched but it can cut a lot of the incoming light. The transition for this method works much more slowly, so it shouldn't be used for displays that require very fast image making. It is also just a transition between two colored states. One commercial use for Electrochromic glass is in airplane windows to replace shades
Sage Glass is one manufacturer of Electrochromic Glass.


LCD is a bit of a different class here and has been discussed briefly in the transparent section, but it uses large LCD panels as individual pixels to turn different grayscale colors. The switching of the LCD opacity can happen rapidly just as in normal LCD monitors. It has been used for projects such as Sosolimited and Hypersonic's Patterned by Nature
Patterned by Nature
Jason Bruge's studio also makes heavy use of specialized LCD panels, like in the piece Digital Fountain.
Jason Bruges Studio Digital Fountain
Finding a source for making custom LCD's in this way is a bit of a challenge since they are such a niche product. One source may be Pacer. Another is White Wing Logic based in the UK who has created or advised on a number of the projects for Jason Bruge's studio.